These are the pepper varieties proved and hence recommended for agro-climatic conditions of India after extensive research by The Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR), Kozhikode (Calicut)
Each producing country has identified and developed for cultivation a number of pepper varieties most suitable for the conditions prevailing in their pepper growing regions. These varieties vary in growth characteristics and yield. Since these varieties are suited to the agro-climatic conditions existing in each region, it is not desirable to use varieties from other regions as planting material without confirming their suitability in appropriate trials and scientific studies.
In India over 75 varieties or cultivars of pepper are grown. Karimunda is the most popular among them. Other important varieties are Kottanadan, Narayakodi, Aimpiriyan, Neelamundi, Kuthiravally, Balancotta, and Kalluvally in Kerala State and Billimalligesara, Karimalligesara, Doddigya, Mottakare and Uddagare in Karnataka State.
Below Table 13 shows the important characteristics of the traditionally cultivated pepper varieties in India.
Some of these cultivars have been used for selection of high yielding varieties and for hybridization programmes. The first hybrid, Panniyur 1 (Fig below), was produced at Panniyur Pepper Research Station in Kerala over three decades ago. This hybrid variety is very popular among pepper farmers in India.
Panniyur-1 has big berries compared to berries from the Karimunda variety.
Srikara and Subhakara (Fig below) are selections from Karimunda.
Kottanadan is good for extraction of oleoresin. At present 12 varieties have been released including Panniyur 1 for cultivation in India by different research stations located at Kozhikode, Panniyur and Palode, in Kerala.
The names and characteristics of these high yielding varieties are shown in Table 14.
- PC:The Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR), Kozhikode (Calicut)