- Planting and Gap filling
- Mid monsoon manuring
- White Stem Borer Management
- Coffee Berry Borer Management
- Post monsoon Bordeaux mixture or Systemic fungicide Spray
- Post monsoon Manuring
- Indenting for Seed coffee
1. Planting and Gap filling
6-8 month old basket seedlings can be planted in the field. Please follow the method of planting (refer in June-July operations). Gap filling should be done with the same variety. Do not practice planting different varieties of coffee in the same block. Different varieties perform differently in the same block in terms of growth, quality and productivity. Therefore, planting different varieties in the same block will disturb the field uniformity as well as results in inconsistent cup quality. Further, the level of disease and pest resistance of different varieties is different from each other.Provide adequate protection to the plants from cattles and monkey menace.Protect the plants from cockchafer pest during the initial years of planting. Keep the weeds away from the new planting site as they compete for applied fertilizers with the coffee plants. Weeds are more efficient than coffee plants in absorbing applied nutrients and hence keep them away. Mulch every new coffee plant and provide them protection from wind by placing cross stakes. Wherever, shade protection is deficient, hutting should be done.
2. Mid- monsoon manuring
During the monsoon, nutrient nitrogen is lost very fast due to leaching. Plants need nitrogen during this period in order to produce more of shoots and branches.
It is necessary to provide nitrogen to the plants to balance the nitrogen loss due to leaching. Therefore, apply 58 kgs of nitrogen (2.5 bags of Urea) per hectare during the break in the monsoon. This mid monsoon application of urea also helps in reducing the berry drop.
3. White Stem Borer Management
Borer infested plants should be properly traced, uprooted and destroyed by burning on the same day. Otherwise, the uprooted plants have to be immersed under water for 8-10 days.
In case the borer has not reached the root system (at least 9 inches above the ground), such plants can be collar pruned at a height of 9-12 inches from the ground and new suckers can be allowed. Do not store the uprooted infested plants. Storing of infested plants hastens the life cycle of the borer and they emerge faster than usual infesting healthy plants.
During the September month after the cessation of rain, the coffee stems are soft and this is the right period for stem smoothening using coir gloves. Thick branches of the plants should also be smoothened. Do not use sharp tools for smoothening the stems and branches. Care should be taken to see that the green parts of the stems are not damaged during this operation. Any damage caused to the green portion of the stems results in death of the plants as well as infestation by fungus causing stem canker disease. Egg laying activity of the borers can be avoided by proper smoothening of the stems. Apply 10% lime solution to the smoothened stems and branches.
WHITE STEM BORER PHEROMONE TRAPS
4. Coffee Berry Borer Management
Coffee Berry Borer has to be controlled using Beauveria bassiana spray using bakpak sprayer.
Method of preparation of Beauveria bassiana culture In 375 ml glass bottle add 50 gm of rice and 50 ml of water. Plug the mouth of the bottle with cotton ball. Place these bottles in an aluminium container filled with water to a height of 50cm. Close the container with its lid and steam the bottles inside for about 20 minutes. Bottles are then cooled to the room temperature and inoculated with the Beauveria bassiana fungal culture. In about 3 weeks, the culture will be ready for use in the field. Immersion and thorough soaking of this culture in one litre of water with wetting agent gives the Beauveria bassiana fungal solution. This solution can be sprayed on the infested berries. This fungus is effective only when applied immediately after the cessation of monsoon when there is high humidity in the field.Spraying of the solution should be done before the hardening of the beans.
5. Post monsoon Bordeaux mixture or Systemic fungicide Spray
The coffee leaf rust disease intensifies during September month. In this period, pale yellow spots on the lower surface of leaves are seen and later these spots turn
orange yellow powdery mass.
If the disease is not controlled at this stage, it intensifies further resulting in defoliation. If the leaf compliments in the plants are lost, then it effects the development and maturity of beans. Defoliation also exposes the plant stems and stem borer can easily attack the plants. As a control measure spray 0.5% Bordeaux mixture (15 barrels per hectare). The lower part of the leaves should be properly covered with the spray mixture.
In case of heavy disease incidence, systemic fungicides have to be sprayed. In such an event, spray of 7-8 barrels per hectare systemic fungicides (160 gm of 25 WP 0.02% Bayleton or 400 ml of Contaf-5EC-0.01% in 200 litres of water). Do not mix systemic fungicides in Bordeaux mixture. The effect of the systemic fungicides starts in about 2-3 weeks and lasts for nearly 2 months. If the rain does not stop during September, then this spray can be undertaken after the cessation of rain.
6. Post monsoon Manuring
Nitrogen is the most important plant nutrient and plants need it throughout the year. Nitrogen helps in the development of new shoots and berries. Nitrogen also helps in the production of large number of flowers and retention of leaves for a longer time. Adequately nitrogen supplied plants produce dense beans of higher quality. Potassium is another element which is essential for the fruit setting, bean filling, maturation and hardening of the beans. It improves the vigour and the pest and disease tolerance of the plants. Phosphorus is needed for the healthy and strong development of roots and shoots. After the monsoon, recommended doses of fertilizers have to be applied. Though the placement of fertilizers (pegging) is very efficient in terms of utilization, the process is laborious and time consuming. Therefore, simple method of application is suggested as under. Remove, the mulch under the plant canopy leaving one foot circle around the main stem. Slightly disturb the soil in the de-mulched area with forks. Broadcast fertilizer uniformly and evenly in this area and rework the soil. Cover again with the removed mulch. This method is very efficient and it avoids volatilization and washing away of nutrients. In steep areas, fertilizers can be applied in semi arch form on the upper side of the stem down the slope.
7. Indenting for Seed coffee
Seed coffee for the preparation of nursery should be procured only from the Central Coffee Research Institute and its other Sub and Regional stations and through Extension wing of the Board. Growers are advised to book their seeds by advance payment either at CCRI or with the extension offices not later than September.